Three integrated treatment systems for boiler feed water / steam are mounted in the water treatment facility. Water is our planet's most critical resource. Efficiency and consistency are therefore top priorities for the water sector. These objectives are becoming increasingly difficult to achieve as clean water supply costs in many regions are rising, whereas operations must be as successful and cost-effective as possible at the same time. The continuous, end-to-end digitization of plants and processes would lead to meeting these challenges for the water and waste water industry.
You probably don't think a lot, but it is doubtful that the water in your tap has come from a municipal water treatment facility. Two major treatment plant types are found: desalinated water and wastewater. Both serve the purpose of water cleaning, but usually wastewater is produced by streams or rivers, and drinking water production facilities are the delivery system for the city's pipe network. The water is usually freshwater lake, river, well or sometimes even a stream, and all the drinking water starts at a source. Chemicals called coagulants are applied to the water in order to speed up the deposition and removal process.Read More
Aluminum sulphate is the most common coagulant, but the water treatment plant is different. This chemicals essentially has the opposite burden of suspended solids such as clays or silts, which then neutralizes the load and helps particles to stick together. Now that the solids will start sticking together in the bath, the mix is eventually blended into a flocculation basin to begin forming what are known as floc particles. These floc particles then settle in a sedimentation bath from the mixture, with slimmer water overturning a weather.
This is just the first step and most of the particles are dissolved in the water, but smaller particles as well as chemical substances and bacteria which still remain. The next step is normally filtration through a sand philtre following sedimentation. Since the beginnings of water treatment, sand filter have been used, which are needed for standard clarity most of them to be involved in the treatment process.Read More
A sand philtre, a basin of fine to gross sand that filters water is essentially exactly what it sounds like. Both solids can be separated from water by using only sand filter, coagulation and flocculation can be completely removed. This would however mean that the sand philtre had to be washed more frequently, decreasing the treatment plant quality. Sand filter can either flow from the floor and out from the top, or water flows from the top and from the bottom. The filter can also be fitted into two directions. Every one poses its own problems, but for reasons of cleaning efficiency the standard set-up is inflow at the base and outflow at the top. Well, water from most contaminants and hazards can be extracted and again drunk through procedures involving chemicals and filter.
Wastewater entering the treatment plant contains such things as logs, rocks, and even dead animals. If they are removed, they can cause problems later in the treatment process. Most of these items are sent to a landfill site.
The wastewater system depends on the power of gravity to transfer the wastewater from your home to the treatment plant. As a result, wastewater treatment plants are situated on low land, often near a river in which treated water can be released. From here on, gravity takes over the process of shifting wastewater into the treatment process.
One of the first steps a water treatment plant should take is simply to shake the waste and expose it to air. This allows some of the dissolved gases (such as hydrogen sulphide, which smells like rotten eggs) that taste and smell bad to be released from the water. Wastewater is entering a series of long, parallel concrete tanks. Each tank shall be divided into two parts. Air is pumped through the water in the first section.
When organic matter decays, oxygen is used up. Aeration is filling up the oxygen. Bubbling oxygen through the water also holds the organic material suspended while causing 'grit' (coffee grounds, sand and other small dense particles) to settle. Grit is drained out of the tanks and sent to the landfill.
Wastewater joins the second segment or sedimentation tanks. Part of the water is removed in a step called thickening, and the sludge is then extracted in large tanks called digesters.Read More
When the sludge sinks to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, lighter materials float to the surface. This 'scum' contains fat, oils, plastics and soap. Scum is thickened and poured into the digesters along with the sludge.Many cities still use filtration in the treatment of wastewater. After the solids are removed, the liquid waste is filtered through a substance, normally sand, by the action of gravity. This process eliminates almost all bacteria, decreases turbidity and colour, removes odours, reduces the amount of iron, and removes most of the other solid particles remaining in the water. Water is often filtered by carbon particles, which extract organic particles. This approach is often used in some homes.
Chlorine is often removed when the bacteria are killed, but often it needs to be neutralized with the addition of other chemicals. This protects fish and other aquatic species that can damage the smallest quantities of chlorine.Treated water (called effluent) is then drained into a nearby river or ocean.
Another part of the treatment of wastewater is solid waste products. These solids are stored for 20 to 30 days in large, heated and enclosed tanks called 'digesters.' Here, bacteria break down (digest) the substance, reduce its volume, smell, and extract organisms that can cause disease. The finished product is mostly shipped to landfills, but it can also be used as fertilizer.